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Zoroastrians the Parsi s , largely concentrated in Mumbai and in coastal Gujarat, wield influence out of all proportion to their small numbers because of their prominence during the colonial period.
Several tiny but sociologically interesting communities of Jews are located along the western coast. Parsi companies adapted the popular folk techniques for their extravaganzas and were a major influence until the s.
Rabindranath Tagore, rejecting the heavy sets and realistic decor of the commercial companies, created a lyrical theatre of the imagination.
Much influenced by the baul singers and…. These Parsi Persians have preserved only a relatively small portion of their sacred writings.
India , country that occupies the greater part of South Asia. Exposure In death rite: Modes of disposal of the corpse and attendant rites In ceremonial object: Objects used in rites of passage fire worship In nature worship: Folk theatre In South Asian arts: Modern theatre In South Asian arts: Triumph of the Arabs View More.
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Education, discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like…. English language, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family that is closely related….
In Rustom's eldest son Naoroz later Naorojee founded the Bombay Parsi Panchayat in the sense of an instrument for self-governance and not in the sense of the trust it is today to assist newly arriving Parsis in religious, social, legal and financial matters.
Using their vast resources, the Maneck Seth family gave their time, energy and not inconsiderable financial resources to the Parsi community, with the result that by the midth century, the Panchayat was the accepted means for Parsis to cope with the exigencies of urban life and the recognized instrument for regulating the affairs of the community.
In the Bombay Times noted that the Panchayat was utterly without the moral or legal authority to enforce its statutes the Bundobusts or codes of conduct and the council soon ceased to be considered representative of the community.
Although the Panchayat would eventually be reestablished as the administrator of community property, it ultimately ceased to be an instrument for self-governance.
At about the same time as the role of the Panchayat was declining, a number of other institutions arose that would replace the Panchayat's role in contributing to the sense of social cohesiveness that the community desperately sought.
By the midth century, the Parsis were keenly aware that their numbers were declining and saw education as a possible solution to the problem. In Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy established the Parsi Benevolent Fund with the aim of improving, through education, the condition of the impoverished Parsis still living in Surat and its environs.
In the Parsis established their first school co-educational, which was a novelty at the time, but would soon be split into separate schools for boys and girls and the education movement quickened.
The number of Parsi schools multiplied, but other schools and colleges were also freely attended. The fund succeeded in convincing a number of Iranian Zoroastrians to emigrate to India where they are known today as Iranis and the efforts of its emissary Maneckji Limji Hataria may have been instrumental in obtaining a remission of the jizya for their co-religionists in In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Parsis had emerged as "the foremost people in India in matters educational, industrial, and social.
They came in the vanguard of progress, amassed vast fortunes, and munificently gave away large sums in charity". This would be the last time that the Parsis would be considered a numerically significant minority in the city.
Nonetheless, the legacy of the 19th century was a sense of self-awareness as a community. The typically Parsi cultural symbols of the 17th and 18th centuries such as language a Parsi variant of Gujarati , arts, crafts, and sartorial habits developed into Parsi theatre , literature, newspapers, magazines, and schools.
The Parsis now ran community medical centres, ambulance corps, Scouting troops, clubs, and Masonic Lodges. They had their own charitable foundations, housing estates, legal institutions, courts, and governance.
They were no longer weavers and petty merchants, but now were established and ran banks, mills, heavy industry, shipyards, and shipping companies.
Moreover, even while maintaining their own cultural identity they did not fail to recognize themselves as nationally Indian, as Dadabhai Naoroji , the first Asian to occupy a seat in the British Parliament would note: Our country is India; our nationality is Indian".
The main components of Zoroastrianism as practiced by the Parsi community are the concepts of purity and pollution nasu , initiation navjot , daily prayers, worship at Fire Temples, marriage, funerals, and general worship.
The balance between good and evil is correlated to the idea of purity and pollution. Purity is held to be of the very essence of godliness.
Pollution's very point is to destroy purity through the death of a human. In order to adhere to purity it is the duty of Parsis to continue to preserve purity within their body as God created them.
A Zoroastrian priest spends his entire life dedicated to following a holy life. Zoroastrians are not initiated by infant baptism.
Normally, a child is initiated into the faith when he or she is old enough to choose to enter into the faith. The initiation begins with a ritual bath, then a spiritual cleansing prayer; the child changes into white pajama pants, a shawl, and a small cap.
Following introductory prayers, the child is given the sacred items that are associated with Zoroastrianism: The child then faces the main priest and fire is brought in to represent God.
Up until the midth century child marriages were common even though the idea of child marriage was not part of the religious doctrine.
Consequently, when social reform started happening in India, the Parsi community discontinued the practice. There are, however, rising problems over the availability of brides.
More and more women in the Parsi community are becoming well educated and are therefore either delaying marriage or not partaking at all.
Women within the Parsi community in India are ninety-seven percent literate; forty-two percent have completed high school or college and twenty-nine percent have an occupation in which they earn a substantial amount of money.
The wedding ceremony begins much like the initiation with a cleansing bath. The bride and groom then travel to the wedding in florally decorated cars.
The priests from both families facilitate the wedding. The couple begins by facing one another with a sheet to block their view of one another.
Wool is passed over the two seven times to bind them together. The two are then supposed to throw rice to their partner symbolizing dominance. The religious element comes in next when the two sit side by side to face the priest.
The pollution that is associated with death has to be handled carefully. A separate part of the home is designated to house the corpse for funeral proceedings before being taken away.
The priest comes to say prayers that are for the cleansing of sins and to affirm the faith of the deceased. Fire is brought to the room and prayers are begun.
The body is washed and inserted clean within a sudre and kusti. The ceremony then begins, and a circle is drawn around the body into which only the bearers may enter.
As they proceed to the cemetery they walk in pairs and are connected by white fabric. A dog is essential in the funeral process because it is able to see death.
The body is taken to the tower of death where the vultures feed on it. Once the bones are bleached by the sun they are pushed into the circular opening in the center.
The mourning process is four days long, and rather than creating graves for the dead, charities are established in honor of the person.
Zoroastrian festivals were originally held outside in the open air; temples were not common until later. Most of the temples were built by wealthy Parsis who needed centers that housed purity.
As stated before, fire is considered to represent the presence of Ahura Mazda, and there are two distinct differences for the types of fire for the different temples.
The first type of temple is the Atash Behram, which is the highest level of fire. The fire is prepared for an entire year before it can be installed, and once it is, it is cared for to the highest possible degree.
There are only eight such temples located within India. The second type of fire temple is called a Dar-i Mihr, and the preparation process is not as intense.
There are about of these located throughout India. This section contains information specific to the Parsi calendar.
For information on the calendar used by the Zoroastrians for religious purposes, including details on its history and its variations, see Zoroastrian calendar.
Until about the 12th century, all Zoroastrians followed the same day religious calendar, which had remained largely unmodified since the calendar reforms of Ardashir I r.
Since that calendar did not compensate for the fractional days that go to make up a full solar year, with time it was no longer accordant with the seasons.
Sometime between and cf. However, the Parsis were the only Zoroastrians to do so and did it only once , with the result that, from then on, the calendar in use by the Parsis and the calendar in use by Zoroastrians elsewhere diverged by a matter of thirty days.
The calendars still had the same name, Shahenshahi imperial , presumably because none were aware that the calendars were no longer the same.
In the Parsis in and around Surat switched to the Kadmi or Kadimi calendar on the recommendation of their priests who were convinced that the calendar in use in the ancient 'homeland' must be correct.
Moreover, they denigrated the Shahenshahi calendar as being "royalist". In attempts to bring the two factions together resulted in the introduction of a third calendar based on an 11th-century Seljuk model: Today the majority of Parsis are adherents of the Parsi version of the Shahenshahi calendar although the Kadmi calendar does have its adherents among the Parsi communities of Surat and Bharuch.
The Fasli calendar does not have a significant following among Parsis, but, by virtue of being compatible with the Bastani calendar an Iranian development with the same salient features as the Fasli calendar , it is predominant among the Zoroastrians of Iran.
Since some of the Avesta prayers contain references to the names of the months, and some other prayers are used only at specific times of the year, the issue of which calendar is "correct" also has theological ramifications.
To further complicate matters, in the late 18th century or early 19th century a highly influential head-priest and staunch proponent of the Kadmi calendar, Phiroze Kaus Dastur of the Dadyseth Atash-Behram in Bombay, became convinced that the pronunciation of prayers as recited by visitors from Iran was correct, while the pronunciation as used by the Parsis was not.
He accordingly went on to alter some but not all of the prayers, which in due course came to be accepted by all adherents of the Kadmi calendar as the more ancient and thus presumably correct.
However, scholars of Avestan language and linguistics attribute the difference in pronunciation to a vowel-shift that occurred only in Iran and that the Iranian pronunciation as adopted by the Kadmi s is actually more recent than the pronunciation used by the non- Kadmi Parsis.
The calendar disputes were not always purely academic, either. In the s, emotions over the controversy ran so high that violence occasionally erupted.
In a Shahenshahi resident of Bharuch named Homaji Jamshedji was sentenced to death for kicking a young Kadmi woman and so causing her to miscarry. Of the eight Atash-Behrams the highest grade of fire temple in India, three follow the Kadmi pronunciation and calendar, the other five are Shahenshahi.
The Fassali s do not have their own Atash-Behram. The Ilm-e-Kshnoom 'science of ecstasy', or 'science of bliss' is a school of Parsi-Zoroastrian philosophy based on a mystic and esoteric, rather than literal, interpretation of religious texts.
According to adherents of the sect, they are followers of the Zoroastrian faith as preserved by a clan of individuals called the Saheb-e-Dilan 'Masters of the Heart' who are said to live in complete isolation in the mountainous recesses of the Caucasus alternatively, in the Alborz range, around Mount Damavand.
There are few obvious indications that a Parsi might be a follower of the Kshnoom. Although their Kusti prayers are very similar to those used by the Fassali s, like the rest of the Parsi community the followers of Kshnoom are divided with respect to which calendar they observe.
There are also other minor differences in their recitation of the liturgy, such as repetition of some sections of the longer prayers. Nonetheless, the Kshnoom are extremely conservative in their ideology and prefer isolation even with respect to other Parsis.
The largest community of followers of the Kshnoom lives in Jogeshwari, a suburb of Bombay, where they have their own fire temple Behramshah Nowroji Shroff Daremeher , their own housing colony Behram Baug and their own newspaper Parsi Pukar.
There is a smaller concentration of adherents in Surat , where the sect was founded in the last decades of the 19th century. It has been traditional, in Mumbai and Karachi at least, for dead Parsis to be taken to the Towers of Silence where the corpses are quickly eaten by the city's vultures.
The reason given for this practice is that earth, fire, and water are considered sacred elements which should not be defiled by the dead.
Therefore, burial and cremation have always been prohibited in Parsi culture. However, in modern day Mumbai and Karachi the population of vultures has drastically reduced due to extensive urbanization and the unintended consequence of treating humans and livestock with antibiotics,  and the anti-inflammatory diclofenac , both of which harm vultures.
As a result, the bodies of the deceased are taking much longer to decompose. Solar panels have been installed in the Towers of Silence to speed up the decomposition process, but this has been only partially successful especially during monsoons.
In Peshawar a Parsi graveyard was established in the late 19th century, which still exists; this cemetery is unique as there is no Tower of Silence.
Nevertheless, the majority of Parsis still use the traditional method of disposing off their loved ones and consider this as the last act of charity by the deceased on earth.
The studies suggest sharp contrast between the maternal and paternal component of Parsis. The studies suggest a male-mediated migration of Parsi ancestors from Iran to Gujarat where they admixed with the local female population during initial settlements, which ultimately resulted in loss of Iranian mtDNA.
A study published in Genome Biology based on high density SNP data has shown that the Parsis are genetically closer to Iranian and Caucasus populations than to their South Asian neighbours.
They also share the highest number of haplotypes with present-day Iranians; the admixture of the Parsis with Indian populations was estimated have occurred approximately 1, years ago.
It is also found that Parsis are genetically closer to Neolithic Iranians than to modern Iranians who had recently received the genes from the Near East.
Parsis have been shown to have unusually high rates of breast cancer  bladder cancer , glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Parkinson's disease.
The Parsis have made considerable contributions to the history and development of India, all the more remarkable considering their small numbers.
As the maxim "Parsi, thy name is charity" alludes to, their most prominent contribution is their philanthropy. Although their people's name Parsi comes from the Persian-language word for a Persian person, in Sanskrit the term means "one who gives alms".
The Malabar Hill in Mumbai, is a home to several prominent Parsis. Particularly notable Parsis in the fields of science and industry include physicist Homi J.
Bhabha , Homi N. The Parsi community has given India several distinguished military officers. Lieutenant Colonel Ardeshir Burjorji Tarapore was killed in action in the Indo-Pakistan war and was posthumously awarded the Param Vir Chakra, India's highest military award for gallantry in action.
Naxalite leader and intellectual Kobad Ghandy is a Parsi. Fali S Nariman is a constitutional expert and noted jurist. Rattana Pestonji was a Parsi living in Thailand who helped develop Thai cinema.
Firdaus Kharas is a Parsi humanitarian and activist who has helped pioneer the use of animation in social entrepreneurship. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about a Zoroastrian community of the Indian subcontinent. For the Persian people, see Persian people.
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List of Parsi people. Of Zoroastrian descent ". Paymaster , p. Banu Irani 68 Bom. The fight of Parsi women in interfaith marriages".
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